7 Mostly-Great Options for an Off-Grid Refrigerator

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Those of you old enough to remember the TV show The Honeymooners, may also recall their ice box, which (spoiler alert!) is on this list.

But if storing your food next to a block of ice isn’t appealing, I’ve got six other refrigeration options for off-grid living. One of which is certain to be a perfect fit.

Refrigeration as a modern day convenience

The first home refrigerator was invented in 1913, though it was another 10 years before Frigidaire invented a self-contained unit. And it wasn’t until 1940 when the fridge/freezer combination we’re used to today was invented.

Factors to consider

The problem is, a typical American refrigerator isn’t going to work well off-grid.  Which is exactly why I put together this roundup. And also why I’m starting off with these important factors to keep in mind.

  • Where do you live?
  • What resources do you have at your disposal?
  • What’s your climate like?
  • How much money do you want to invest in refrigeration, and the power necessary to run it?
  • What size do you need? Are you a single guy, or The Waltons?

There is one other thing I’d like to point out first: Even though we Americans refrigerate nearly everything, this doesn’t mean that everything actually needs to be refrigerated.

Solving that riddle will no doubt reduce your refrigeration needs, and here’s a handy guide to help with that.

Also, we’ll be listing the easiest, cheapest, and least technologically-reliant first, and moving toward more conventional and convenient options.


survival farm

A zeer pot is an evaporative cooler that was invented in the 1990s in Nigeria by Mohammed Bah Abba, though there is evidence of this style of  refrigeration going back a couple thousand years to ancient Egypt.

The mechanics of it are simple:

  • Take two clay pots and nest them together.
  • Fill the gap between them with wet sand.
  • Place your produce in the smaller pot, and cover with a lid or even a towel.
  • Place it in an area that is both shady, and ideally has a bit of a breeze.

As the water evaporates (by the wind, not the sun; this is important.) it chills the pot.

It essentially uses the water as refrigerant. As the sand dries out, you’ll need to keep adding more water.

Don’t expect your zeer pot to get as cold as a refrigerator. Though if your climate is dry, and the area is windy, temps can get as low as 40 degrees Fahrenheit.

Zeer pots don’t work as well in really humid areas. And they will go through water quickly in drier climates. Expect to add water to the sand about three times each day. And also expect to use as much as two gallons of water per day.

Which leads us to …

You’ll have to decide which resource you have more of or want to conserve more. Those of you living in a desert may not find this water consumption worth it, while others with easy access to water may feel differently.

For those of you interested in putting together your own, here are some instructions for building the Cadillac of zeer pots.

The one advantage with coolers is they’re easy. There’s nothing to build; just buy it, and you’re ready to go.

However, there are a few disadvantages.

Depending on your climate, and the quality of cooler you have, you may be getting ice frequently. And this source of ice will not be cheap, and it may not be close. ( Unless you have an ice house, more on this later.)

If you go with a high-quality cooler, like the Yeti brand, then you’re ice will last longer, but you’re also going to pay a few hundred dollars for your cooler.

And then there’s the issue of soggy food. Because even with your best laid plans, intentions, and organization, water has a way of getting things wet. Wet hot dogs – not a big deal. Wet cheese – well, that’s just disgusting.

An ice house is simply a building used to store ice. It can be above ground, below ground, or partially-below ground.

Keeping your ice below ground will obviously keep it colder, like a root cellar, which will help you maintain your supply through the summer.

If you’re storing your ice above ground, you may want to insulate it. Sawdust and straw are both commonly-used insulators.

Just like you nested two pots together for the zeer pot, you can nest two structures together. Then pack the space in between with your insulator of choice.

While storing the ice is pretty straightforward and easy, harvesting your ice isn’t. You’ll be cutting it from frozen lakes and rivers using a power saw or a machine specifically built to harvest ice.

The video below shows a bit more how that’s done, its a fascinating process.

This refrigeration idea is obviously location-dependent, it’s also quite intensive, and maybe even a bit risky. So factor that into your decision.

Root cellars are fantastic options even in conjunction with another main source of refrigeration. There’s nothing like the security of having a backup supply of food on hand, just in case.

Historically, root cellars were used to keep root vegetables fresh through the winter. However, besides storing the summer’s harvest in whole-food form, you can also store canned and preserved food that you prepared from that harvest.

The Farmer’s Almanac states that at 10 feet below ground you’ll find what you most need in any root cellar – temperature stability.

Which means you’ll be able to keep foods warmer in the winter, and cooler in the summer.

Any type of structure that provides the natural insulation of the earth will work, such as

  • Basements with a few modifications
  • Structures built into the ground or side of a hill
  • Barrel or garbage can

Remember our zeer pot. You can do the same thing with a garbage can. Dig the hole a little wider than the can, and deep enough so that the lid is just a few inches above ground. And then insulate the gap between earth and can with mulch or straw.

There are five things any root cellar needs to function properly:

  1. Ventilation
  2. Shelter of the earth
  3. Darkness
  4. Humidity – between 85-95%
  5. Shelving – optional

If you’re interested in learning more about root cellars, easy cellar has a fantastic comprehensive guide.

5. Propane Powered Refrigerators

Propane works great for heating, as in water heaters, stoves, ovens, and home heaters. And they’re popular in RVs. Though people who have RVs aren’t generally using them in cold climates. The whole point is to move with the good weather.

You may be wondering, what does that have to do with anything?

Well, most propane refrigerators must be vented,which means busting through the exterior of your home and putting in vents. So when the weather turns nasty, as it tends to do in winter, you’ve got cold air venting into your house. But that’s not the worst part, as Ethan Waldman discovered.

Ethan, who lives in a cold climate, discovered that propane refrigerators don’t work very well when temperatures drop to the degree that they do way up north.

And without getting too technical (you can follow the link above for the technical), the absence of heat caused everything in his fridge to freeze.

The best that can be said for propane-powered refrigeration is that it’s a cheaper, out-of-box solution than a solar-powered fridge.

There’s not much in the way of initial set-up, except for those vents. And that lack of infrastructure may be appealing to some.

This one has some good reviews and may be worth investigating further:

A 10 cubic foot refrigerator will use about .35 gallons of propane per day. If propane costs $5 per gallon, this means you spend around $50 per month. Over the course of one year, that’s $600, and over the course of 10 years, it’s $6000. That kind of money is more than adequate to cover a hefty solar set-up.

But even then, there are other issues, such as …

  • More maintenance required
  • More expensive than solar fridges
  • More expensive to repair
  • The hassle of getting refills
  • Pilot lights go out
  • Cleaning couplers and flues
  • Propane could go way up in price
  • You cannot produce it yourself

For a lot of folks, moving off the grid is as much about independence as anything else.

Do you want to have to rely on a source of power you have absolutely no control over?

Yes, you can’t control the sun, or the wind, but when the sun stops shining, none of us will have to worry about anything ever again.

6. Solar Powered Refrigerators

Any refrigerator will run on solar energy provided you have an inverter – which converts DC battery power to 120 volt AC power – and enough energy to get it running, and keep it running. Or you could just buy a solar powered refrigerator.

A solar powered fridge will cost you more upfront. But you’ll eliminate the need for an inverter — though you may need one for other appliances anyway. And it’ll require a lot less energy, which means fewer batteries and solar panels.

Sundanzer make great solar powered fridges, you can have a look at some of their models on Amazon:

Check on ​Amazon

Two things to keep in mind if going with a solar refrigerator. A one-degree difference in temperature can mean a 5% difference in energy consumption. So get a fridge with a thermostat that you can control.

The other thing that contributes to energy efficiency is the style of the refrigerator.

The most efficient fridge/freezer combo is when the freezer is on top. Cold air is heavy, so with that style the cold air naturally falls into the refrigerator chamber without the use of fans or pumps.

When the freezer is on the bottom, it requires more energy to push that cold air upward. The other type, the side-by-side fridge/freezer, is also not as efficient.

A solar powered refrigerator is a significant investment to be sure. However, unlike regular refrigerators, they’ll require much less hardware to operate. And when compared with propane refrigerators, they’re cheaper. Plus, you have the added bonus of never having to worry about the cost of propane going crazy, or even one day disappearing.

But if cost is an issue, and you still want something convenient and energy efficient, well, number seven on our list may be the perfect solution you’ve been looking for.

7. Chest Freezer Conversion

Tom Chalko, an Australian inventor, was the first person to come up with this, it seems. Who can be sure?

His dream is to live a near-zero emission life, and this fairly-simple and cheap conversion gets him pretty close. Ever heard of having your cake and eating it, too? This is it!

Once you have the few parts you need – an external thermostat, a temp sensor (thermistor), and a few smaller parts – it takes only about a half hour to convert the chest freezer into a super-efficient refrigerator.

A chest freezer has better thermal insulation than refrigerators, which allows for less energy consumption than refrigerators even at much lower temperatures.

And remember that fun fact from above, about how cold air is heavy? In a chest freezer, when you open the door, that cold air doesn’t feel the need to escape.

Tom found that his new refrigerator, which operated in the range of 40 – 45 degrees, used the same amount of energy in 24 hours as a 100 watt light bulb uses in just one hour.

How’s that for amazing?

If interested in doing a chest freezer conversion yourself, check out the video below. It’s easy enough that anyone can do it. And so efficient that everyone should be doing it.


The one tip I repeatedly came upon during the research for this article was this: Use what nature already provides. Work with it, not against it, and you’ll be well on your way to off-grid living success.

So while propane refrigerators may not make sense for those of you in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, an ice house just might. While those of you in the southwest, who get upwards of 320 sunny days each year, will likely find solar a reliable resource.

And all of us, once you get 10 feet below ground, can make use of the earth’s consistent, year-round temps to store food.

Life Straw


  1. How about converting a propane refrigerator-freezer to use other sources of heat?
    All you need is to modify the heated part to use a solar reflector, fire, wood stove, or stovepipe.

  2. I don’t want to advertise my location with solar panels. I’ll go with the propane refrigerator and when it is cold enough that freezing the contents is likely it is cold enough to not really need to use it. be nice to be able to buy an Icyball but building one is not that difficult.

  3. We live in a mid-Atlantic East Coast state at about 1500′ in elevation. We chose a north facing embankment to place a root cellar. Having the skill set to do the job, we opted for one monolithic pour of concrete for all 4 walls and the roof. 2″ steyrenne board on the exterior of the 3 under ground walls and a slope poured on the roof to keep the moisture from bleeding through. The cellar then had the earth returned to it’s natural contours. We then planted blue berry bushes to shield the ground from the sun. Within 2 years one would not even know the area was disturbed. Anchor channels (commercially available) were put in place before the pour. These were used to anchor a natural stone face to the cellar which blends in with a retaining wall that extends past the cellar in both directions. By using a steel commercial grade insulated fire rated door we were able to weld anchors to the skin and attach stone to the door. After 5 years of use the only 2 people to even notice it were veteran stone masons. The front wall was then shot on the inside with 3″ spray-on foam. We allowed for 4′ on all exterior walls and built shelving as need. The neighbor kid works at a nursing home where food stock is delivered in bulk and was more than happy to drag home 4 gallon buckets for $1 each. We now fill our buckets in March and let mother nature freeze them for us. They then go 2 deep, floor to ceiling on all 4 walls. Most years we still have ice in some of the buckets come Sept. Mid summer the temp still hovers in the mid 40’s. It also gives us over 3000 gallons of clean water to use should the need arise. The back-hoe was free to use and we gathered the stone. We rented the conc. forms and paid $300 for the pump truck to make the pour. Total cost (including the blueberry bushes) was just under 3K + A LOT of personal labor. But it is year round refrigeration and a stock pile of potable water.

  4. Years ago the country folks had dug wells. Before the ice box became popular, many of them would put perishable items into a container and lowered them down into the well for cooling purposes.

    • Yes – at farm I grew up on we had the primary well with pump but at bottom of same hill we had a mostly neglected and falling apart spring house about 4′ x 6′. The rock was cut out roughly 2′ x 2′ x 3′ deep. Even without roof and partially collapsed rock walls, it was always chillier in the small spring house and putting a watermelon in the spring water provided cold watermelon after a few hours.
      Same farm – the original log house was extended to double the size. Dad said that underneath our living room was the old ice pit and though it was floored over we could tell where an indoor access point was to access the pit. We never put ice in it but that floor was comfortably cooler in the hot summer.

  5. No mention of the ammonia refrigerator? Perhaps because a lungful of ammonia gas will kill. Still requires a heat source, but heat could be any source.

    Couple years back in middle of SE Texas summer, I tested some off-grid cooling methods IF I needed to store my insulin w/o electricity. Here, evaporative cooling doesn’t work too well. Results:
    1) Zeer pot-in-pot. 5 days of tests resulted in 10 degree drop in temperature. Note that the pots and wet sand also serve as insulation to help preserve night-time coolness.
    2) Modified Zeer pot, large coffee can with LOTS of large holes drilled out with wet rags inside and pint jar in center, hung under large shade tree. 5 days of tests resulted in average of 12 degree drop in temperature (average 83 deg vs 95 deg).
    3) Frio Insulin Cooler for personal portable use. Daytime with humidity less than 45% results in 14 deg drop in temp (average 84 deg vs 98 deg). Nighttime with humidity more than 75% results in 5.6 deg drop in temp (average 79.7 deg vs 85.3 deg).
    4) 4′ deep (freshly dug) post-hole which resulted in temperature drops of 16 degrees (average 79 deg vs 95 deg). A deeper hole should provide lower temps approaching our overall average temp of 70 deg.
    5) If I can locate a spring, suspect water temp would be around 70 deg.
    6) A 5 gallon bucket of water in shade stabilized at 86 deg (the day/night ave ambient air temp)
    Note that all measurements were done in the afternoon (except Frio night tests) and I must assume that the humidity was less than 50% for those tests.

  6. We here in Australia, get crazy temps. In the centre of the country, we get temps around 113F during the day and they drop to 40F during the nights.
    On the east coast we get temps in summer around 110F days and drops to around 68F nights.
    We are always looking for ways to beat the climate, after all this is our holiday season now, in the new year and a lot of us go camping.
    A lot of us play with fridges, to fix our cooling needs while we are off grid.
    And just a note on Aussies being inventors, any one here heard of wifi?……your all welcome.
    Aussie Out.


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